During the denture repair, the oral environment can be greatly enhanced thereby improving the overall oral health by adding antimicrobial agents to the denture base materials. Chitosan quaternary ammonium salt is a good antimicrobial resin material, characterized by good water solubility, flocculation, moisture absorption, and antibacterial properties with no cytotoxicity to cells. The antioxidant property of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt mainly comes from the presence of a large numbers of hydroxyl groups in the chitosan quaternary ammonium salt. The hydroxyl radical can form very stable macromolecular free radicals with the active hydrogen atoms on the hydroxyl and amino groups, exhibiting and promoting the antioxidant property in the chitosan quaternary ammonium salt.
Figure 1. The teeth with denture materials
Properties of Denture Materials
Common denture material properties are corrosion resistance, antibacterial properties and nontoxicity.
- Corrosion Resistance
Chitosan quaternary ammonium salt has strong antioxidant properties. Adding chitosan quaternary ammonium salt to the denture matrix material can enhance the corrosion resistance of the material through the antioxidant mechanism. After saliva corrosion, the denture material exhibited less corrosion and less surface debris due to higher chitosan quaternary ammonium loading.
- Antibacterial Properties
Results from the antibacterial assays indicated that the amount of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt in denture materials had a positive correlation with its anti-streptococcus ability. Indeed, denture materials antibacterial rate also increased with the increase in chitosan quaternary ammonium salt concentration.
Murine fibroblast L929 cells were used for the cytotoxicity test. No significant difference in cell proliferation was observed at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h between traditional resin denture base materials and the chitosan quaternary ammonium salt modified materials, indicating that the materials were non-toxic to murine fibroblast cells.
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- Song R.; et al. Evaluation of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt-modified resin denture base material. Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 2015, 85: 102-110.