At present, the COVID-19 epidemic is still serious all over the world. The demand for fungicides also continues to increase. Quaternary ammonium fungicides are known as the most ideal fungicides because of their high efficiency, low bactericidal concentration, small side effects, colorless, odorless, non-irritating, low toxicity, safety, and long-lasting antimicrobial, which is widely used in natural environment, hospital disinfection, aquaculture and other fields.
Figure 1. Sterilization
Quaternary Ammonium Fungicides
Fungicides mainly include chlorine fungicide, alcohol fungicide and quaternary ammonium fungicide. Compared with chlorine fungicides and alcohol fungicides, which are easy to corrode, pungent smell, flammable and explosive, quaternary ammonium fungicides have the advantages as follows, such as stable properties, high efficiency, no pungent odor and non-corrosive. Due to these advantages, quaternary ammonium fungicides have attracted more and more attention.
Figure 2. Comparison of three common fungicides
Quaternary ammonium fungicide is a fungicide with chlorine quaternary ammonium salt and bromine quaternary ammonium salt as the main bactericidal active ingredients. According to the components, quaternary ammonium fungicides can be divided into the following three categories.
a) Fungicides with single quaternary ammonium salt component.
b) A variety of quaternary ammonium compound fungicides.
c) Fungicides compounded with 65% - 75% ethanol or isopropanol.
Mechanism of Sterilization
The mechanism of quaternary ammonium fungicide is that cations absorb negatively charged bacteria through electrostatic force, hydrogen bonding force, hydrophobic bonding between surfactant molecules and protein molecules, then gather on the cell wall to produce room barrier effect, which lead to the inhibition of bacterial growth thereby death. At the same time, hydrophobic alkyl group of quaternary ammonium fungicides can also interact with the hydrophilic group of the bacteria to change the permeability of the membrane, and then destroys the cell structure, finally causes cell lysis until death.
Before use of quaternary ammonium fungicides, the following points need to be paid more attention.
a) Remove Organic Matter
Since organic substances can reduce the bactericidal concentration of quaternary ammonium salts, organic substances on the surface of objects should be removed before disinfection with quaternary ammonium fungicides.
b) Not Mixed with Anionic Surfactants
Quaternary ammonium salt is a cationic surfactant. Quaternary ammonium fungicides will reduce the effective concentration when combined with anionic surfactant. Common anionic surfactants in life include soap, washing powder, etc. In the process of using quaternary ammonium fungicides, avoid mixing with these anionic surfactants.
c) Avoid Using High Hardness Water
Quaternary ammonium fungicides are easily affected by pH, water quality, temperature and can exhibit better antimicrobial and bactericidal effects in an alkaline environment. Some quaternary ammonium fungicides react with metal ions in high-hardness water to reduce the effective concentration of quaternary ammonium salt, thus can not reach the corresponding disinfection effect. Therefore, distilled water should be used and the pH should be adjusted to alkaline in order to achieve the best disinfection effect when preparing quaternary ammonium fungicides.
Quaternary ammonium fungicides are efficient and safe, stable in nature, low in bactericidal concentration, small in side effects, non-irritating, and widely used in the antimicrobial mask, antimicrobial coatings and antimicrobial foam.
What Can Alfa Chemistry Do for You?
Alfa Chemistry has a professional team with many years of experience and has focused on the preparation and application of quaternary ammonium fungicides. With advanced platforms and equipment, we can provide the design and synthesis of multi-purpose quaternary ammonium fungicides to meet your requirements. We can ensure high-quality standards and complete delivery on time. If you want to know more about quaternary ammonium fungicides, please contact us.